In the Seventh century BC the Etruscans, masters of the Mediterranean Sea, established trading links with the Languedoc.
Great amphorae and ceramic potery known as "buccero nero" are known from this period, and traces of the Etruscans have been found at Bessan, Substanton (Catelnau-le-Lez) and the port of Lattes.
In the following century, Greeks from Phocius (Phocée) are known to have traded with the Languedoc. They founded Massalia, (modern Marsielle) and then Agatha (modern Agde), both trading ports. They tended to keep to the littoral, but Greek coins and pottery, including amphorae from this period is known as far inland as Gaudevan.
It was the Greeks who introduced viniculture to the Languedoc, so vines have been cultivated here for two and a half milennia. Even in Greek times wine was exported to to Gaul and Italy, while drinking vessels were imported to the Languedoc.
The Languedoc also provided a trading gateway, for example giving the Greeks access to tin from the Aquitaine.
Another characteristic feature of this period is the oppidum, a hill-top town, similar to later bastides. These towns were defensible and provided panoramic views of land and sea. Examples may be seen at Enserune (Hérault département), Béziers, Carcassonne, Le Cluzel (near Toulouse), and the mont Cavalier at Nîmes. Around this time a few villages grew into sizeable towns, with extensive use of dry stone walls.
Around the fifth century the Celts arrived and settled in the Languedoc.